Friday, March 13, 2020
Open University Malaysia Ã¢â¬â Graduate School Essay Free Online Research Papers I was born in Tawau, Sabah in 1972. I attended my primary and secondary school in Tawau, Sabah before continuing my education at Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur in 1991. Upon graduation in 1996, I joined American International Assurance Company Ltd (AIA), Kuala Lumpur and was assigned to the Group Management Department as an Administration Executive. I have been working with AIA until June1999 and decided to left Kuala Lumpur after secured a job as Administrator in Expojuta Trading Sdn Bhd in Kota Kinabalu. In March 2002, I left Expojuta Trading Sdn Bhd and formed Bluetech Sdn Bhd, a company dealing with telecommunication products and services. In 2004, I bought over Pinnacle Communications Sdn Bhd and it become 100% fully own subsidiary of Bluetech Sdn Bhd. I was too concentrated and focus on my career at that time until I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t complete my full course under the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators. I was married in 2002 and had a child at the age of five now. During my semester break, I always strive to improve myself by taking various part time jobs in Kuala Lumpur as I believe that working experience gained from corporate world would be able to keep me in touch with the latest business trends and movements so as not to lag behind. In addition, I took up a correspondence course from Chung Hwa Correspondence School in Taiwan in 1994 and completed four subjects at their Department of Commerce. I was a student in The Institute of Chartered Secretaries Administrators since 1993 and completed 16 subjects. I take an active role in various societies in Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman. I was elected as Vice Chairman in Sabah Sarawak Students Society in 1991/92. I provide many assistance to students especially those who are from Sabah and Sarawak in term of accommodation and transportation arrangement. I was a member of The Fund Raising Sub-Committee in Business Management Society in 1994/95. As a member of the Fund Raising Team, I learned how to work as a team and different method of fund raising. Being a young entrepreneur in order to stay competitive and responsive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s changing business world, I need to continually enhance my managerial skills and update my industrial knowledge. After well-thought out, I decided to pursue Master Of Business Administration programme (MBA) offer by Open University Malaysia. In order to gain entrance to the said programme through open entry, I was required to prepare a Portfolio Assessment. I believe that learning is a life long process and should not end after leaving school. After several years working in managerial level, I realized and concluded that I need integrating skills in my personality as well as in the work I do. I am confident that I can gain business decision making skills and turning my business concepts into realities through MBA programme. As the programme is flexible, I can study at my own pace without having to put my business or career on hold. I believe my working experience and former education do qualify me for the programme. I am self discipline, innovative, proactive and able to manage my time well. I proud myself as few local operators who providing encrypted two way radio communications network to users in Sabah since 2004. I plan to complete this programme in two years. I would like to see myself be more professional competence after two years. 2.0 CAREER AND ACADEMIC GOAL After graduation, I have been working with American International Assurance (AIA), the most trusted insurance company in Malaysia according to the survey conduct by Time and Fortune magazines. I have been assigned to lead Billing Section and supervise a team of five clerical staffs. I learned how to manage departmental backlog, administrative procedures and to ensure day to day operation of the Billing Section are productive and efficient. In 1997, I was awarded a special salary adjustment in recognition to my positive contributions to the Company. After returned to Sabah in July 1999, I worked as Administrator in a trading company where I can see a better picture of managing business as a whole. I learned marketing strategies, account and administration procedures as well as policy making. Being an Administrator, I worked with my team to complete four years company account within three months and get it ready for audit. I further introduced and implement computerize credit control s ystem in order to enhance debtors control and minimize bad debts. I always wanted to start my own business in technology related industries. After acquiring necessary business network, management and marketing skills, in 2001, I formed Bluetech Sdn Bhd, a company specialize in providing telecommunication products and services. I acquired Pinnacle Communications Sdn Bhd in 2004 as both Bluetech and Pinnacle Communications offering similar services in Sabah. I have three staffs work together with me to manage the company. I provide two way radio and walkie-talkie services to users in Sabah. I found that Global System for Mobile (GSM) network coverage in Sabah generally is still very limited especially in the remote area for example in Kuamut ,Pinangah and Tongod. As such, two way radio communication networks will able to close this gap and providing alternative way of communication to the users. I planned to further improve my existing two way radio communication network in Sabah to become multisite roaming in late 2008 in order to enhance network flexibility. As for oversea expansion program, I planned to set up a repeater station at Philiphine in year 2009 as we are geographically near to each other and necessary resources are readily available. Further more, the demand for alternative way of communication is huge and the market is still untap. I decided to take up Master Of Business Administration offer by OUM as I believe this programme will be able to enhance my strategic decision making skill and reinforce my organizational skills. With this programme, it will give me the competitive edge to go far in my future business development. I am confident that I will be able to complete this programme within two years. 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Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Scenario 2 - Case Study Example Although there is an excellent set of guidelines, they are somewhat dry and by themselves do not convey the urgency and relevance that they should, (Bailey& Burch, 2005). As a professional behavioural analyst, the codes of conduct prescribe a confidentiality clause that calls for the adherence to strict rules and regulations when it comes to revealing information about patients to third parties. Although this is the case, it is important on the other hand to keep records of the success stories of the well treated and recovered patients such as the one the former student asks. He treated a patient and he can be noted as one of the success stories in his career as the dilemma of data disclosure creeps in.Bailey & Burch, (2005) are of the opinion that it is inhumane for a professional to misuse and maltreat a patient who is not aware of his rights and privileges and hence cannot speak up as in this case, the parameters of the situation being the client whose guardian is portrayed as too hectic to be disturbed with matters that involve the disclosure agreements of the successful patient treated with aggressive behavior issues.The former behaviour analyst student, now in the professional field has faces a dilemma in the disclosure agreements that were not mention when the treatment began in the approvals signed. The Basis of the Conflict There is conflicting interests and unclear standards as the practisingbehaviour analyst is torn between the interests of the client as well as the interests of his career advancement in the publication of his success story of the patient involved. This conflict of interest of the two parties is based on the assumption that the guardian is too busy to be disturbed on signing the relevant documents that can be drafted to allow the professional to use data from the successful treatment of the patient in a publication. There are high chances that the guardian will not be able to read such a publication but on the other hand runs the ris k that the case might generate so much public interest that the guardian will be forced to spare some time and get to know the contents of the publication. It is also eating the conscience of the former student that he might be breaching professional ethical conduct in releasing the data to the public bearing in mind that there was no disclosure agreement signed prior to the treatment as well as there was no intention to use the data for such purposes. Available options At this point, the former student has the option of going ahead to use the data without the consent of the client and in case the publication generates a heated debate and the disclosure agreements come under scrutiny, he should be ready to face the consequences of his actions. On the other hand, the publication could be a basis to elevate his career and gain more clients. He also has the option of tracking down the guardian and sweet talk him to create time to draft and sign the necessary disclosure agreements befor e the publication is done. This will avoid the legal tussles that may ensure if the client finds his rights violated while on the other hand it is a long and tedious process that will involve costs to the lawyers. He also has the option of letting go of the publication but as well include the necessary disclosure documentation in any other treatment of the next patients. This will ensure that any other conflicts of interests will not arise. Best Course of Action and Outcome The best
Sunday, February 9, 2020
TORT LAW - F - Essay Example The difference between the two thus far developed has been a cause of grave concern for common law, but the distinction has been made evident by recent cases to a great extent, especially with the presence of principles laid out in Alcock v Chief Constable of Yorkshire Police 1 and McLoughlin v OÃ¢â¬â¢Brian 2. What is Nervous Shock? Nervous shock is described as an array of recognizable psychiatric diseases which are over and beyond the usual distresses a person encounters upon witnessing the scene of an accident. Mere emotional setbacks that are considered ordinary, including fear, grief and worry are not considered sufficient at law3. Thus, ailments such as clinical depression, anxiety neurosis, and post traumatic stress disorder fall into the category of nervous shock, which admittedly is a label underplayed as it represents a larger than normal degree of psychiatric damage4 than simply suggesting an element of shock. As Lord Jauncey clarified in Alcock at 419, the c laimant must suffer a Ã¢â¬Å"recognizable psychiatric illnessÃ¢â¬ in order to justify cause for action (Chadwick v British Transport Commission 5). Thus, it must be observed that nervous shock is more aptly treated as personal injury to the mind as different from personal injury to the body. It follows that the first step to determining whether a claim of psychiatric damage is valid at law would be to categorize the kind of harm experienced, and whether it was serious enough to give rise to a duty of care on the part of the defendant, as normal fear and anxiety is exempt from such duty and people are expected to be of reasonable firmness capable of dealing with normal distresses6. Negligently Inflicted Psychiatric Harm If a claim for psychiatric harm stems from one in negligence, the same principles of establishing a claim apply. Thus, the four requirements of a negligent act must be present, namely the duty of care, breach of that duty, causation and the damage resulting f rom that breach which must not be characterized as too remote. The law related to duty of care is illustrated well by the principles established in Donoghue v Stevenson7 and Caparo Industries v Dickman8. The duty of care is established when a sufficient relationship can be established by virtue of neighborhood and proximity of relationship so that the claimant can be reasonably foreseen to be injured by the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s act and whether establishing such a duty would be fair, just and reasonable in the present case9. In order to establish this duty, the courts take heed from recognized duty situations (Sutherland Shire Council v Heyman )10. Thus, a manufacturer may be sued by a consumer for a defective product which causes physical harm (Donogue), the driver of a car who engages in an accident but only causes psychiatric damage but no physical damage to the victim he collides with may also be liable (Page v Smith )11 but the employee-employer relationship does not g ive rise to an automatic duty of care in terms of psychiatric injury suffered by rescuers after an incident (White v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police12). Since the damage we are concerned with is psychiatric, the harm may not just extend to the victims who are immediately affected by a risk of personal injury resulting from the negligent act, but also
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Examine what is meant by situation ethics Essay Joseph Fletcher an Anglican theologian was the main person to challenge the view that ethics and morality have to be based around laws and rules. He developed three ways of making moral decisions, these were: 1. The antinomian way 2.The legalistic way 3. The situational way The antinomian way was a way of making decisions without any laws or principles. It is what feels right at that particular time and on no bases whatsoever, only on how it feels to you. This was also where existentialism arose. Existentialism being a principle developed by a 19th century Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard. His theory was that the best way to make decisions was for each individual to find their own unique bases for morality; the foundation for his argument was that no objective or rational bases could be grounded in moral decisions. So the antinomian approach is therefore that in every existential moment or unique situation the situation itself provides the ethical solution. The legalistic approach being at the other end of the scale. This is a way of making decisions with regard to laws or rules. The legalist will live their life in accordance with a set of guidelines or rules. For example Jews will abide by the rules of the Torah and make their decisions primarily from this source. Joseph Fletcher suggested a third way of making moral decisions and this was called the situational way, which consists of a compromise between antinomianism and legalism. In the situational approach every decision is made on one universal principle and that is love. In situation ethics his view was to look at each situation individually. His main line of argument was that the only moral principle that could be applied to all situations is that of love, or: To do whatever is the most loving thing. (Fletcher quoted by Jenkins, Ethics and religion p47). Whereas Natural law theorists ask what the law states, Fletcher asks what is the best possible decision to help others and provide love in doing so. Therefore in his view this is not a law in itself, and its not dictating what should be done in any particular situation but rather an approach that informs moral choice. In other words you should always have someones best interest at heart. Another one of Fletchers arguments was that Christians are meant to love and care for each other and God is also portrayed to be all-loving. As this is the case for Christians shouldnt morality also be based around this theory to do the most loving thing? The Christian perspective like many other religions is based around the idea of natural law. The natural law ethic arose in the 4th century BCE by Aristotle. The Christian theologian and philosopher Thomas Aquinas further developed the ideas first put forward by Aristotle. He argued that the natural purpose of the world is found in God. He outlined natural law in the following way by suggesting that all people should follow the law of God. He also believed that Human purpose was to reproduce, to learn, to live harmoniously in society and to worship God. (Jenkins p26, quoted by www.faithnet.freeserve.co.uk/situation_ethics.htm). His ultimate belief was that Natural law describes not only how things are, but also how they ought to be furthermore this happens when things fulfil their natural purpose. Natural law is only concerned with what seems to be the natural course of action for humans to take and this is where the conflict arises with situation ethics. There are many circumstances where what appears to be natural doesnt appear to be loving. This is why theologians such as Joseph Fletcher dont agree with the natural law ethic as it causes much controversy. For example the Catholic Church undertook the natural law approach to guide them in terms of their sexual behaviour. They saw the natural purpose for sexual intercourse to be procreation, so therefore anything that proves to be a barrier to this end result is not allowed i.e. contraception. When developing an approach to Situation ethics Fletcher suggested 4 working principles and 6 fundamental principles to outline his ideas. The 4 working principles are: 1.Pragmatism- being ideas and theories that have to work in practice, to be right of good it has to produce a desirable outcome that satisfies loves demand. The main emphasis is that the practical course of the action should be motivated by love. 2.Relativism- To be relative, on has to be relative to something, as situation ethics maintains it has to relate to love and should always respond to love in each situation. Fletcher says it relativises the absolute; it does not absolutise the relative (Fletcher quoted from Vardy; Puzzle of ethics p126). Meaning each absolute can be made relative to love but relativism cannot be applied to a concrete situation as love acts differently in different situations, it depends on how its applied and this varies with each circumstance. 3.Positivism- this is accepting to act in love by faith rather than by reason, once faith is declared it is supported by logic. In situation ethics positing a belief in God as love or a higher good and then reasoning what is required in any situation to support that belief. 4.Personalism- This is the desire to put people not laws first. It is always what is the best to help a person that makes a decision a good one. As God is meant to be personal therefore morality should also be person-centred. However It is the main framework of situation ethics that is outlined by the 6 fundamental principles. These are: 1. There is only one thing that is intrinsically good- love. Actions are good if they are fulfilling love by helping them but reversibly they are bad if they hurt people. No single act in itself is right or wrong it always depends on the situation the circumstance occurs in. Love always decides the actions that are good or bad. 2. The ruling principle of Christian love is agape love. Agape love is self-giving love and this doesnt require anything in return. The overriding principle of decision-making is love. 3. Love and justice are the same. In Fletchers words love and justice are the same thing, for justice is love distributed. (Fletcher quoted by William Bailay p73). He also claims that justice is love at work in the community in which human beings live. (Vardy, Puzzle of ethics p128). 4. Thout shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (William Temple quoted by Vardy, puzzle of ethics p123). As the neighbour is a member of the human family therefore love wills the neighbours good. Love is practical and not selective. Christian love is said to be unconditional so we should show love to everyone and that includes are enemies. 5. Only the end result justifies the means, love is the end- never a means to something else. Love can justify anything in situation ethics as long as the end result satisfies love. 6. Loves decisions are made in the circumstance of each situation and not prescriptively. Humans have a responsibility of freedom. No one is bound by laws, so with this responsibility comes the notion to do the most loving thing and to apply this to every situation. Fletcher claims that it is a mistake to generalise. You cant say Is it ever right to lie to your family? The answer must be, I dont know, give me an example. A concrete situation is needed, not a generalisation. It all depends may well be the watchword of the Situationist. (Puzzle of ethics, Vardy p.130) There are many moral dilemmas when given certain situations, and taking the situational view we are faced with the duty to do the most loving thing possible, and to serve agape love. Taking an example from William Bailay, on a wilderness trial to Kentucky many people lost their lives to Indians who hunted them down. In one case there was a woman who carried her child with her and her child was crying. The babys crying was betraying the rest of the camp as the cries were leading the Indians to them. The mother clung to her child and as a result the whole camp was found and they were all killed. In another case a Negro woman and her party found themselves in the same situation, their lives were in danger, as they too would be found out if the baby continued to cry. However the Negro woman strangled her child to stop its cries, and as a result the whole party escaped. How can we tell which action was love? The Mother who kept her baby and brought death all, or that of the mother who killed her own child to save the lives of her family and friends? This is a perfect example of the type of decisions that situation ethics confronts us with. In situation ethics there is no definite right or wrong, it has to be applied by each circumstance. Likewise there is no intrinsic value, no goodness or badness held purely in an action itself. Situation ethics says it all depends on the situation and whether or not it fulfils love. Goodness and badness are not properties of moral actions they are predicates. This demonstrates one of the key aspects and an advantage for situation ethics. Sometimes morality can be somewhat restricted however in taking the situational approach there are no moral rules. If someone with morals can only abide to duty they cant go outside their own boundaries. This is the case in many orthodox religions. Whereas situation ethics maintains that there are no absolutes, you are allowed to go outside certain boundaries if in doing so you are providing the most loving result. Take the Islamic faith for example. Muslims follow the laws of the Koran; one law is do not steel, which is an absolute. But say if there were a single mother living in the poorer regions of the country who had no money and was struggling to feed her starving children. Would it be right for the mother to let her children starve? Or would it be better for the woman to go against the law and perhaps steel some food in order for them to survive? If the woman followed her religion seriously then it would not be morally right for her to steel and as a result her children lives would be at stake. This is the advantage of situation ethics, it says that words like never and absolute cant be used because their will always be exceptions. Another advantage of situation ethics is that people are always put first, it is a personal matter. People are made more important than principles. This goes against the legalistic approach. Where legalism put laws in first place conversely situation ethics makes people the main emphasis. Furthermore we often find that the outside world is constantly changing. As we live in the modern day and age we are on a constant roller coaster of changing situation. As a result of this many religions find it extremely difficult to apply their laws to the modern world. Take the Torah being applied to the modern age or orthodox Jews attempts to conserve laws against modern relativism to be an example. Because situation ethics can change with time this gives it a huge advantage. Situation ethics also makes the important link between love and justice, which is another key aspect and this is shown as the third of the six fundamental principles. To Fletcher justice is love distributed and Justice is love working out its problems. (William Bailay p73) However there have also been many criticisms of Situation Ethics. When referring to the meaning of love, this is sometimes seen to be too general. As love has no definite meaning, it changes according to the situation, it becomes relative, and so it cannot be said that there is only one moral absolute. As there are no specific guidelines for agape love it could be said that it is possible to justify any action. These are dangerous boundaries. The question What might happen if I allow euthanasia once? could be asked. It may be hard to know where to draw the line; people all over the place might start killing their grandparents because they are too oldin the name of love! Situation ethics sometimes relies on spontaneity, however spontaneity can sometimes be misguided. It may turn out to be irrational and foolish. The abandonment of rules may in turn reduce situation ethics to antinomianism. It may lead to a state of moral flux as rules play an important part in sociological maintenance. It is also been decided that there are certain examples of absolutes. Take rape, child abuse and genocide, these are all examples of absolutes that are wrong and under no circumstance would they be right. You would not be able to justify this with love. It is often quite hard to understand exactly what is meant by the meaning of love. It can be hard to know what they most loving thing to do is. It is also hard to know what the most loving thing is in terms of the consequence. How can we predict all the consequences of an action? This can be shown by euthanasia. Say their was a man who had aids and had only a 5% chance of getting better again, he approached his friend and asked him if he would end his life for him. What happens if he got better? Even if there is only a very tiny chance there is still a chance. The man might suddenly make a recovery and go on to lead a long and prosperous life. How can we predict the consequences? It is also hard when attempting to share love out fairly in a particular situation. This can also be shown by this example of euthanasia; it is hard to know what is the best for the person, friends and family. It might be best for the man but what might be best for him might not necessarily be the most loving thing for the family or their friends. It is also quite hard to view a situation from a totally unbiased perspective. There is a possibility that a decision could be made selfishly with or without realising it but as its in the name of love it is justifiable. This again makes the boundary for love very hard to distinguish. It is also questionable as to whether it is possible for all members of society to judge each situations by its merits. A lot of time and energy has to go into the decision this isnt always accessible to everyone. How practical is situation ethics? Finally on what basis is it possible for the situationist to make moral decisions? What happens when there are no ultimate ethical principles? The situationist is making prejudiced decisions based potentially on personal whims. An example of a danger caused by this can be seen in the actions of Adolf Hitler and his attitude towards the Jews in the Second World War. For those who felt that situation ethics went to far in attempting to set itself free from any conception of law, there is an approach that combines both theories of natural law and of situation ethics. This approach is known as proportionalsim. Proportionalists hold the belief that there are particular situations where moral rules should be abided to unless there is a proportionate reason for not contending with them. This reason would be grounded in the situation itself. In this way the primary precepts of natural law could be accepted (e.g. killing, stealing, lying etc) as the ground rules unless there was a sufficient reason for not doing so. Proportionalists hold a clear distinction between moral and non-moral acts. For example proportionalists would say abortion is wrong, but it may be morally right in the circumstances of that situation. However unlike situationalists they say that love does not then make a wrong action right. Furthermore they still incur the same problems that situationalists face in trying to determine what bests serves love in a situation, and on making decisions by selfish means.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Expanding the Horizons of Beauty Through Fiction, Poetry, and Drama In the short story Everyday Use, Alice Walker employs symbolism to enhance the message of the story and the value of the genre. As she narrates the relationships between Mama and her daughters Dee and Maggie, Walker uses the quilts as the main symbol to support the meaning of heritage and bond between generations of African American women. It is thanks to this symbolic meaning that we are able to reflect on the conflict of the story as Walker presents the contrasting ideas of Dee and Maggie about appreciating family traditions. Maggie knows how to keep her heritage alive as she learned to quilt herself, whereas Dee would hang the quilts as decoration and thus holds a rather superficial view of honoring oneÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition. Symbolism in fiction, therefore, opens a door to understand the characters in a deeper dimension, identify the conflict in a better way, and help the author develop the plot in an interesting ma nner In addition, symbolism works as an aesthetic glass through which the reader can perceive the beauty and universal appeal of the story. In every culture, heirlooms are a bonding element among family members. Thus, the symbolic meaning of the quilts allows the reader to connect personally with the story, help him reflect on his own family and, possibly, appreciate how past generations have contributed in his or her life. Furthermore, symbolism becomes even more relevant to the African American community. The fire in the JohnsonsÃ¢â¬â¢ house is an important event that symbolizes the flame of oppression in society before blacks were granted civil rights. MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s scars, therefore, become a symbol of the marks that slavery and abuse left in the hearts of African A... ...read their works, we are encouraged to explore life in a profound way and understand the struggles, fears, and hopes that are part of the human experience. And so, as they skillfully use each key element in their works, these African American writers remind us that the power of creativity and beauty goes beyond the color of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s skin, that literature is a universal art. Works Cited Walker, Alice. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday Use.Ã¢â¬ English 120. (Professor Theresa Sweeney). Fontbonne University. 2012. Handout. Hayden, Robert. "Those Winter Sundays." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. Ed. Michael Meyer. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2012. 551. Print. Wilson, August. "Fences." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. Ed. Michael Meyer. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2012. 1517-1566. Print.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The argument I have chosen to use is one that was between my friends and I. It was the early hours of the morning and we were at a Jacuzzi party. We were discussing the topic of wages and how much those of us who worked were earning. We then started talking about football players and how they earn millions of pounds for doing a very unnecessary and over paid job; compared to people who offer a service for the country such as those in the NHS or the armed forces who spend all day risking their lives or saving other peoples. The two main points of the argument were: 1. Ã¢â¬ËYes, Footballers are over paid but that is the way it is and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how it fits into the national frameworkÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â This point was shared by everyone in the argument, except one person 2. Ã¢â¬ËFootballers are paid to much and it should be changed now! Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â This point was shared by one person The people who believed in point 1, myself included showed how their point was valid. They showed that even thought it is not morally right for footballers to earn that much money compared to the amount of work they do or in comparison to people in public services but that is the way it is and with out them Public services would not be able to run as easily. We showed this by explaining the national frame work. The money that is earnt by the footballers is taxed greatly, some as much as 40%, This money is then distributed between education, social security, the NHS and many other things. The other person was still on a one tracked mind that it was just wrong and should be changed. So we explained it again and after much persuasion he started to see things our way. He then started to change the argument and incorporated big companies such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Nike. His point was that they employ people in under developed countries to work for them because itÃ¢â¬â¢s cheap labour and it allows them to make a massive profit margin. The whole group agree that this was wrong but being the well balanced young adults we are, we looked at both sides. Some of our outcomes were that even though to us it seems like an unacceptable wage, the people employed are at least employed. We went far beyond people in Asia and right to where we lived. To other people, 16 and 17 year olds being paid just over minimum wage to work long hours and do jobs other people would say no to, is fine by them. In fact, after this argument a lot of people involved realised it was about themselves. How ironic?
Monday, January 6, 2020
Lateral inhibition is the process by which stimulated neurons inhibit the activity of nearby neurons. In lateral inhibition, nerve signals to neighboring neurons (positioned laterally to the excited neurons) are diminished. Lateral inhibition enables the brain to manage environmental input and avoid information overload. By dampening the action of some sensory input and enhancing the action of others, lateral inhibition helps to sharpen our sense perception of sight, sound, touch, and smell. Key Takeaways: Lateral Inhibition Lateral inhibition involves the suppression of neurons by other neurons. Stimulated neurons inhibit the activity of nearby neurons, which helps sharpen our sense perception.Visual inhibition enhances edge perception and increases contrast in visual images.Tactile inhibition enhances perception of pressure against the skin.Auditory inhibition enhances sound contrast and sharpens sound perception. Neuron Basics Neurons are nervous system cells that send, receive, and interpret information from all parts of the body. The main components of a neuron are the cell body, axons, and dendrites. Dendrites extend from the neuron and receive signals from other neurons, the cell body is the processing center of a neuron, and axons are long nerve processes that branch out at their terminal ends to convey signals to other neurons. The conduction of the action potential across a myelinated and an unmyelinated axon. Encyclopaedia Britannica/UIG/Getty Images Neurons communicate information through nerve impulses, or action potentials. Nerve impulses are received at neuronal dendrites, passed through the cell body, and carried along the axon to terminal branches.Ã While neurons are close together, they dont actually touch but are separated by a gap called a synaptic cleft. Signals are transmitted from the pre-synaptic neuron to the post-synaptic neuron by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. One neuron can make connections with thousands of other cells at synapses creating a vast neural network.Ã How Lateral Inhibition Works In lateral inhibition, the activation of a principal cell recruits an interneuron, which, in turn, suppresses the activity of surrounding principal cells. Ã Adapted from work by Peter Jonas and Gyorgy Buzsaki/Scholarpedia/CC BY-SA 3.0 In lateral inhibition, some neurons are stimulated to a greater degree than others. A highly stimulated neuron (principal neuron) releases excitatory neurotransmitters to neurons along a particular path. At the same time, the highly stimulated principal neuron activates interneurons in the brain that inhibit excitation of laterally positioned cells. Interneurons are nerve cells that facilitate communication between the central nervous system and motor or sensory neurons. This activity creates greater contrast among various stimuli and results in greater focus on a vivid stimulus. Lateral inhibition occurs in sensory systems of the body including olfactory, visual, tactile, and auditory systems. Visual Inhibition Lateral inhibition occurs in cells of the retina resulting in enhancement of edges and increased contrast in visual images. This type of lateral inhibition was discovered by Ernst Mach, who explained the visual illusion now known as Mach bands in 1865. In this illusion, differently shaded panels placed next to each other appear lighter or darker at the transitions despite uniform color within a panel. Panels appears lighter at the border with a darker panel (left side) and darker at the border with a lighter panel (right side). Mach Bands. Copyright - Evelyn Bailey The darker and lighter bands at the transitions are not really there but are the result of lateral inhibition. Retinal cells of the eye receiving greater stimulation inhibit surrounding cells to a greater degree than cells receiving less intense stimulation. Light receptors receiving input from the lighter side of the edges produce a stronger visual response than receptors receiving input from the darker side. This action serves to enhance contrast at the borders making the edges more pronounced. Simultaneous contrast is also the result of lateral inhibition. In simultaneous contrast, the brightness of a background affects the perception of brightness of a stimulus. The same stimulus appears lighter against a dark background and darker against a lighter background. The two bars are the same shade of gray throughout, but they appear lighter on the top (against a dark background) than on the bottom (against a light background). Shi V, et al./PeerJ 1:e146/CC BY 3.0Ã Ã In the image above, two rectangles of different widths and uniform in color (gray) are set against a background with a gradient of dark to light from the top to the bottom. Both rectangles appear lighter at the top and darker at the bottom. Due to lateral inhibition, light from the top portion of each rectangle (against a darker background) produces a stronger neuronal response in the brain than the same light from the lower portions of the rectangles (against a lighter background). Tactile Inhibition Lateral inhibition also occurs in tactile, or somatosensory perception. Touch sensations are perceived by activation of neural receptors in the skin. The skin has multiple receptors that sense applied pressure. Lateral inhibition enhances the contrast between stronger and weaker touch signals. Stronger signals (at the point of contact) inhibit neighboring cells to a greater degree than weaker signals (peripheral to the point of contact). This activity allows the brain to determine the exact point of contact. Areas of the body with greater touch acuity, such as the fingertips and tongue, have a smaller receptive field and a greater concentration of sensory receptors. Auditory Inhibition Lateral inhibition is thought to play a role in hearing and the auditory pathway of the brain. Auditory signals travel from the cochlea in the inner ear to the auditory cortex of the brains temporal lobes. Different auditory cells respond to sounds at specific frequencies more effectively. Auditory neurons receiving greater stimulation from sounds at a certain frequency can inhibit other neurons receiving less stimulation from sounds at a different frequency. This inhibition in proportion to stimulation helps to improve contrast and sharpen sound perception. Studies also suggest that lateral inhibition is stronger from low to high frequencies and helps to adjust neuron activity in the cochlea. Sources Bekesy, G. Von. Mach Band Type Lateral Inhibition in Different Sense Organs. The Journal of General Physiology, vol. 50, no. 3, 1967, pp. 519Ã¢â¬â532., doi:10.1085/jgp.50.3.519.Fuchs, Jannon L., and Paul B. Drown. Two-Point Discriminability: Relation to Properties of the Somatosensory System. Somatosensory Research, vol. 2, no. 2, 1984, pp. 163Ã¢â¬â169., doi:10.1080/07367244.1984.11800556.Ã Jonas, Peter, and Gyorgy Buzsaki. Neural Inhibition. Scholarpedia, www.scholarpedia.org/article/Neural_inhibition.Okamoto, Hidehiko, et al. Asymmetric Lateral Inhibitory Neural Activity in the Auditory System: a Magnetoencephalographic Study. BMC Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 1, 2007, p. 33., doi:10.1186/1471-2202-8-33.Shi, Veronica, et al. Effect of Stimulus Width on Simultaneous Contrast. PeerJ, vol. 1, 2013, doi:10.7717/peerj.146.